Ask an Astrophysicist
Astronomy as a Profession
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Library of Past Questions and Answers
Life of an Astronomer/Astrophysicist
Hi, I'm doing a report on astronomers and I would like to know how it feels to be one. Where did you go to college? Are there any special accomplishments that you have achieved? If you could write back A.S.A.P. it would really help. Thanks.
Like most astronomers nowadays, I spend most of my work hours in front of a computer. All the data are in digital form, stored on computer tapes and disks; we manipulate and plot the data and theoretical models on the computers to try to discover what is going on. Most of my observations are done using satellites; whenever I actually observe with telescopes at observatories, I really enjoy it because, in addition to taking data with sophisticated instruments, I can go outside and see the night sky full of thousands of stars, without city lights and clouds.
I was born and grew up in Japan; after my undergraduate degree (University of Tokyo), I moved to England and did my doctorate at Oxford --- researchers in any field are very international; I'm one example of that.
I hope you will come back to our web site again in the future: for one thing, we're preparing one-page profiles of various members of this group. Since we take turns answering the questions sent in from people like you, we will have one profile linked from our pages at any given time --- the profile of the person behind these answers. So if you visit our site often, you will be able to learn about other people at the learning center (although this may be too late for your report!).
Hope this helps,
Hi, I am a grade nine student from Edmonton. When I was asked to pick a career, I chose astronomy as the field I wish to study in. This assignment requires us to ask an astronomer several questions about the job. Below are examples of job interview questions and I hope you are able to answer the following.
1. What kind of training is required?
2. What part of the job that you like most?
3. What part of the job that you dislike?
4. What are the company benefits?
5. How can one be promoted?
6. In this type of work, do you need a good background knowledge about computers?
7. Will there be any trips out of the city for work purposes?
8. What are your job responsibilities?
9. Are there any dress codes or uniforms required to wear while at work?
10. What projects are you working on now?
11. What kind of qualifications do I need to become a astronomer?
12. What unions do you belong to?
Thank you very much for your time.
Your question was forwarded to our "Ask an Astrophysicist" service.
2. I like to think of the universe as a puzzle that we are trying to piece together. Every new discovery I make is fitting another piece of the puzzle.
3. There is a lot of paperwork involved in proposing for more funding. Every job has some bureaucratic parts, but it's not the most fun.
4. I work for a contractor (Universities Space Research Association) to nasa and the benefits are good: retirement benefits, health and dental insurance, generous vacation time and sick leave benefits, etc. The good universities that hire astronomers will all have comparable benefits.
5. Promotions can be in the form of permanent positions, raises, and better titles. Also improved recognition in the astronomy community.
6. It is very unusual in today's day and age for an astronomer not to have a good to very good background in computers and programming.
7. I regularly travel to remote sites for observations, as well as considerable travel to other cities to meet other astronomers.
8. My job responsibilities include designing, building, testing, and flying various scientific instruments. After they've flown, I analyze the scientific data to figure out what we've learned from the experiment and where we should look for the next piece of the puzzle.
9. No dress code. I tend to wear t-shirts and blue jeans unless I'm going to a meeting in which case I'll wear at least a dress shirt and slacks, and sometime suit and tie if I'm giving a talk.
10. Most of my time is currently spent working on a spacecraft called the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) for which I'm Deputy Project Scientist. You can look at:
for more information.
11. See 1.
12. I don't belong to any unions. There are several scientific organizations that many astronomers belong to: The American Physical Society and the American Astronomical Society for example.
Thanks for your questions
for Ask an Astrophysicist
How and when do astronomers use math, in their career?
In this day and age, you can't be considered a professional astronomer without using math all the time. It ranges from the trivial, like unit conversion (what is the velocity of a star in kilometers per second as opposed to miles per hour?), to the very advanced.
You can get the flavor of the kind of math astronomers use by trying out some of our "You Be the Astrophysicist" activities:
Koji & Ilana
for "Ask an Astrophysicist"
Are there more men or women astronomers?
While the majority of astronomers are men, the percentage of women entering the field is growing.
There is a lot of good information and links available on this at:
Hope this helps,
Michael Arida for Ask an Astrophysicist
Becoming an Astronomer/Astrophysicist
I am a girl in the tenth grade at Westlake High School in Maryland. I am writing to you for information on careers in the field of astrophysics. I have recently been assigned a research paper on the subject of my choice, and I chose to research information on my future career goals. Ever since I was young, I have been intrigued with two things: space and physics. This led me to astrophysics, and I have enjoyed learning facts about the subject ever since.
I would appreciate it if you could send any information you have on the subject, such as: Career listings, pictures, brochures, anything would be of value. I understand fully if you can not reply due to a busy schedule.
Thank you for your time.
If you are interested in astronomy or astrophysics as a career then much of what you might want to know is contained in a brochure put out by the American Astronomical Society. This is available on-line at
or you can write and get a paper copy from:
The American Astronomical Society Education Office,
University of Texas,
Astronomy Department, RLM 15.308,
Austin Texas 78712-1083.
Astronomy is a tremendously exciting field, and speaking from my personal experience it is also a lot of fun. I would encourage you to pursue it if you are seriously interested. At the present time the job market is very tight, but it is risky to predict the situation by the time you finish school.
About how much would an astrophysicist make in one year's time?
Your question about an astrophysicist"s salary is not easy to answer. There are many factors which determine a scientist's salary -- such as: do you work for an academic institution, private industry, or the government? how many year's ago did you obtain your Ph.D.? in the United States, what part of the country do you live in? All of these factors, and many more, will affect how much your annual salary is.
I can tell you this....every couple of years, there is a survey of scientists working in the United States who have obtained their Ph.D. within the previous two years. The salaries of these folks are averaged into values which "should" be representative of what an astrophysicist makes when starting their career (but it is still not sensitive to what part of the United States one lives in!). The latest values I saw were that the average starting salary for an astrophysicist working at an academic institution was about $40,000 US; for working in private industry, it was about $50,000 US.
Hope this helps you.
Addendum (2013 July): More recent numbers from the American Institute of Physics survey can be found at http://www.aip.org/statistics/ (click the "salaries" link in the "Employment" section).
I hate to burden your mail box with a possible already asked question, but I am at a critical crossroad in my life. I am an undergraduate attending a local university. I have always had an intense love of mathematics and astronomy and my current major (physics) reflects that. I would like nothing more than to work my way to a Ph.D and spend the rest of my days as an astronomer. My question is this: am I pursuing a degree in a dry field? Will there be any jobs? I have spent many hours wrestling with this dilemma and am now seeking advice. Thank you for your time.
You ask a question that every one of us who work in the field of astronomy has asked themselves at one time or another. And there is good reason to worry about future job prospects....but then again, you have to ask yourself "would I be happy doing anything else?"
The job market has been, is, and will probably remain very difficult in astronomy. However, it is also a very exciting time for astronomers -- with lots of missions on-going and soon to be launched. There will always be jobs available for those who are talented, eager, and hard-working. This is, I believe, true for all fields...not just astronomy.
You are wise to get your degree in Physics, however. It will afford you many other job opportunities than just astronomy. (I am biased about this ....I got my degree in Physics).
Hope this is of some help to you. Good luck with whatever you decide.
Who (other than nasa) employs high-energy astrophysicists?
High energy astrophysicists produce new knowledge that then becomes freely accessible to all once it is is published. The production of this new knowledge is considered a 'public good' (to use an economics term) and is therefore funded by the federal government (and the governments of many other countries). This is the case with all of astrophysics and most-all basic research. High energy astrophysics, in particular, is funded in the United States primarily through NASA because the telescopes must be located in space, for the reasons explained at the web site you were browsing (http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov).
As far as actual jobs go, there are many high energy astrophysicists scattered in the physics and astronomy departments of colleges and universities across the nation. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA, in addition, hires quite a number of High Energy Astrophysicists. But, the gist of your question is basically correct, regardless of where we reside most-all research in high energy astrophysics is supported by NASA and its counterparts in other countries.
As it turns out, the freedom to study fascinating phenomena is attractive enough that many more young astrophysicists are produced then there are permanent jobs for. The problem is not as extreme as in the arts and professional sports, but it still poses a problem for the newly minted Ph.D. However, unlike many other overly-sought professions, the skills one develops while studying astrophysics are highly transferable to the private sector -- especially the rapidly growing high-tech industry. In fact, these careers are often just as challenging, and much more lucrative, than those actually studying far-away objects.
In short, if you are thinking of a career in astrophysics (or you are advising somebody who is) and are worried about the job opportunities, you are right to be. On the other hand, a degree in astrophysics is excellent preparation for the modern working world --- and you get to study the wonders of the Universe along the way!
for Ask an Astrophysicist
I am planning on majoring in Astronomy/Astrophysics. Do you have any information on which institutions are offering the best programs in this field.
Your question is a good one, but it would be easier to answer it if you told us what your long term goals are. This is because, if you are interested in a career in astronomy, you will probably want to attend graduate school after college and get a Ph.D. If so, then the choice of graduate school is more important to your future career than is the choice of college. In fact, many students in graduate schools in astronomy have undergraduate degrees in fields other than astronomy, such as physics or mathematics. My list of the top graduate schools in astronomy includes: Princeton, Caltech, UC Berkeley, and University of Chicago as the top few.
For undergraduate astronomy, I think you can get a good education at many colleges or universities. As with many things, what you put into your education can determine what you get out of it. I think that you would find that if you polled the students entering the top graduate schools that they come from a wide range of college backgrounds, including both public and private institutions, liberal arts colleges and large universities.
I hope this helps!
for the Ask an Astrophysicist Team
I am extremely intrigued by bioastronomy and I was wondering where you go to study this field of science and how many college degrees you must obtain?
Bioastronomy, or astrobiology, is interdisciplinary by its very nature, and (as I understand it) includes several different elements, such as
- Search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI), using radio telescope
- Search for extra-solar planets, using optical and infrared telescopes
- Search for life within our solar system, in such places as Mars and Europa
- Studies of the origin of life on Earth, and life in extreme environments.
Which aspect of bioastronomy are you interested in? I don't know if there are any colleges that have degree programs in bioastronomy, encompassing all the above; if there are, these are probably relatively new programs. My guess is that most people active in bioastronomy have degrees in either astronomy/astrophysics or in biology, not both --- Carl Sagan's doctorate, for example, was in astrophysics, and as far as I know he did not have a formal degree in biology or in bioastronomy.
You might be interested in "The Astrobiology Web" at:
which includes a directory listing of 'related Organizations, Societies, Institutes, and Programs' --- note, though, that this list includes groups that focuses exclusively on astrobiology and those that are much wider (e.g., the American Astronomical Society).
for Ask an Astrophysicist
I have a new theory concerning astrophysics. I am writing a study about it and am proving it. Please give me any tips on how to make my theory copyrighted!
Scientific theories cannot be copyrighted. Science advances by the free exchange of ideas. Publications which discuss theories can be copyrighted, to ensure that authors and publishers receive proper credit for their work. If you would like details of that process, which typically results in the publisher holding the copyright, you might want to talk to the publisher of an appropriate scientific journal or a copyright lawyer. Copyright law is well outside our area of expertise. You could establish priority for your ideas by releasing them on the Internet (to a newsgroup or on a web page).
We are glad that you are interested in astrophysics, but we're concerned that you seem unfamiliar with the way that scientists communicate their work through publication. If you haven't received much training in science it is very unlikely that you will be able to make important contributions to astrophysical theory until you have thoroughly learned the craft. It usually takes several years of intense study and practice at a good university to become competent in even a small sub-field of modern astrophysics - but, quoting a colleague, 'Only those who are familiar with the current state of the art can hope to surpass it'.
I AM STUDENT FROM INDIA. i have completed 12th std.(science) with 83%(overall) and 87% in PHYSICS. what can i do for becoming astrophysicist or astronomer. taking advice from here they are saying that you be engineer in electronics or computer,because there is no value of B.Sc, M.Sc in INDIA economically. my father is saying that you should be economically sound. can i come to U.S.A. for higher studies or i can do it in india only. i have deep interest in astronomy. can i enter NASA one day as i am not U.S. citizen. i have submitted application form in electronics and computer science. my turn for counselling is on 20th. is it possible to come to U.S. for engineering which would be helpful for astronomy.i am very much confused . and finally CONGRATULATIONS FOR PHOENIX. thanking you
If you want to be a scientist, then the best preparation is most likely a science degree. But it may be true that if you plan to stop short of a doctoral degree, or maybe even if you complete it, it would be more difficult to get a job as a scientist than it would be to get a job as a computer programmer or an engineer with the corresponding degree. I don't know the situation in India these days. It is not very easy in the United States right now.
But to get a degree in something you don't want to do seems like bad policy. An astronomy degree does have value, but if you want a job as a computer programmer, you would be better off with a computer science degree.
There are many Indian students in the United States, in both undergraduate and graduate studies. There are also many people working at NASA from India and other countries, both those who are now US citizens and those who are still foreign citizens. In general it would be easier to come for study than it would be to come for work.
There are programs to spend a semester or a year at an American university as part of your studies at a university in your own country. Those would be administered through your home institution, and you would have to contact them for more information. You can also come to an American college or university intending to get a degree from that institution. You would have to apply directly to each institution in which you were interested. Almost every institution would accept applications from foreign students.
There are thousands of colleges and universities in the US. All the states and most large cities have a university, usually more than one university campus, and there are private institutions large and small.
There are several good universities in India for astrophysics. Try looking at these sites for some more information:
I found these by entering "India University Astrophysics" into a search engin.
India has an active space program. Take a look at the Indian Space Research Organisation web pages:
Jay and Amy
for Ask an Astrophysicist
The following aditions to the above answer was provided by Sudip, an Indian astrophysicist who voluntereered his time for the "Ask an Astrophysicist" project while he was working in the US.
In India, the salary of a scientist/professor is in the middle class level. The salary of a computer programmer/engineer is several times higher than that of scientists/professors. The difference is much more than it is in the US.
In India, there are about 20000 colleges, about 250 universities, many private institutions (mostly for engineering and management), teaching/research institutes (such as IITs, IISERs, etc.), many laboratories, and so called "elite" research institutes like TIFR, IISc, etc. People with academic (research) interests can go to the US either for doing Ph.D. or for doing a postdoc. The latter, unlike the former, does not require an exam (GRE). Those who do Ph.D. in India normally gets a good scholarship without doing a teaching/research assistantship.
Astronomy is generally not taught in universities (except some like Delhi, Osmania, etc.). Those who want do Ph.D. in astronomy in India should first do a bachelor degree in physics (or engineering with inclination to physics) or a Master degree in physics, and then join (by clearing the entrance test) one of the research institutes that offer astronomy, such as Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Raman Research Institute (RRI), Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), Indian Institute of Science (IISc), etc. Students normally do very good Ph.D. works from these institutes. However, one probably should go to the US for postdoctoral works.
Getting a permanent scientist/professor job (especially in a good research institute) is very tough in India, as it is in the rest of the world.
There are some observational facilities in India: GMRT (radio), Astrosat (X-ray; upcoming), Tauvex (UV; upcoming), some optical telescopes, etc. Also Indian institutes have collaborations with some international facilities.
Hi, I am currently a freshman college student. I want to go into the field of science. Ive always been intrigued with astronomy, for the last four years I wanted to but parents doubt it. Being a woman going into STEM im also nervous. How did you as a woman get into STEM and how did you know this was the right path. How did you determine you wanted to become an astrophysicist. Please help. Id love to have someone in the field give some advice thank you.
Thank you for your question - this is going to be a lengthy reply, because we asked for inputs from our female colleagues (you happened to ask this question when it was the turn of a couple of men to take care of the incoming questions) and several of them provided thoughtful inputs. You don't have to read all the responses, but it seemed a shame to waste the effort of these colleagues.
First, though, you might want to bookmark the Women in Astronomy blog:
Also, we recommend you apply for an internship during your undergraduate years. Possibilities include NASA internships:
National Science Foundation's Research Experiences for Undergraduates program:
and NANOGrav's Student Teams of Astrophysics Researchers (STARS) program:
The last was recommended to us by an ex-colleague who is now part of the NANOGrav (North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves) collaboration doing pulsar, black hole, and/or gravitational wave research.
Another thing one colleague emphasized, even though this does not answer your question directly, is the importance of people you surround yourself with. You should build a community of like-minded scientists (especially other women) whom you can talk to about everything and anything. You're not in this alone.
Now here are experiences of three of our colleagues.
I loved the idea of Astronomy and looking at the night skies from a very young age, so always felt that I wanted to be an Astronomer. I had many doubts as a young women facing sexism in college but I knew their discomfort with me was about their fears, not mine. I also had push-back from my parents as they didn't think women should be scientists. Luckily this did not stop them from paying for my education! So even with the hurdles in front of me I was able to use my knowledge and skills to enter the profession. I would say: try not to let the biases of others deter you - if you want to be an astronomer, go for it! You'll know it's the right path when you are happy every day doing the work. STEM careers are a place to be free to think, to solve problems, to challenge your intellect and to grow. All of these things build self confidence and that is why I believe STEM careers are wonderful for women.
I knew I was fascinated by astronomy, especially the extremes of nature that exist in the Universe, from a young age (like at age 8, the size of our solar system ... and the Universe beyond ... blew my mind!) So I decided to major in astronomy and physics in college. But I actually had a lot of doubts along the way, burning out from some of the issues that you might be worried about, and I just didn't see many role models (mostly male professors who practically lived in their offices, etc) living the sort of life that I wanted as a scientist (e.g., having a reasonable work-life balance). So I took a couple of detours and worked in industry for a year and in science education another year, but ultimately felt I really missed learning and researching my own questions about astronomy. So I decided to go to grad school. Then I did a post-doc and now, finally, I am a research scientist. There were several times that I wasn't sure that I would have a career in astronomy. I think that's ok. Perhaps this is something more women and minorities face, but I know many men do as well. Regardless, I truly believe it is good to take each step in turn and evaluate if you are happy with what you are doing, and adjust along the way. It is very overwhelming, especially as a college freshman, to ask whether you can, should, will be successful in STEM forever! But if astronomy or physics is something that excites you and interests you now, give it a shot! My advice would be to surround yourself with an encouraging support group (probably a mix of peers, professors, etc) and evaluate often what part of the journey (specific classes, subject matter, tasks, etc.) inspire you and which you find exhausting and use these to course-correct. Good luck!
First of all, we absolutely need more women in STEM fields! Please don't feel discouraged just because women are the minority. I really do feel like things are changing, and we need them to keep changing for the better. Also there are so many different careers in STEM and so many options. Having a technical degree in science or engineering can open many different doors and career paths. My first recommendation would be to apply a NASA internship (intern.nasa.gov) and maybe explore some of your options. Also, if you love science and like writing, perhaps science communication might be a possible niche for you. If you like computer programming, that is also another way to be involved in science - at Goddard for instance, we have a lot of scientific programmers, most of whom have degrees in physics/astrophysics. So if astrophysicist turns out not to be you want to do, there are many other options.
I went into astronomy as an undergrad not knowing what I was getting into - I didn't have calculus in high school and I struggled with learning math in a big classroom setting at a big university. And astronomy is physics, and physics is math. My best recommendation to you would be to learn as much math as you can, because it is necessary for understanding concepts in physics and astronomy.
Even though I struggled, I found that learning something that didn't come naturally to me (or that I was underprepared for) was still really worthwhile, and I learned a lot. I really value my training in science because I think making decisions in the real world often (always?) requires critical thinking and examining available data to make a good decision.
I did graduate with a BS in Physics/Astronomy & Astrophysics with a math minor. The summer before my last year of school, I was lucky enough to get an internship at NASA Goddard. I sort of fell into science communication and education/outreach without realizing it was a field I could actually go into. It was a really good fit for me, because it used my training in astronomy and my skill at writing - and helping to explain NASA science and missions to the public and to educators was something I thought was really worthwhile. I was hired after I graduated and have been here ever since. I spent a lot of years developing curricula with teachers, and working on posters and educational/public interest websites. And then social media happened. NASA does a lot of science communication on social media. Currently, I'm the social media lead for the James Webb Space Telescope. I never would have expected to be where I am as an undergrad, and you will have your own journey. If you love STEM, if you love astronomy, then I would encourage you to work hard and pursue what you love. If doors are opened through you, don't be afraid to go through them, and don't let imposter syndrome tell you that you don't believe.
Hope this has been useful.
Koji & Alex
for "Ask an Astrophysicist"
Becoming a Physicist
I'm 14, in the 9th grade and wish to become a theoretical physicist. I have wanted to be one since the first grade (actually I wanted to be a rocket scientist and became more specific). I was hoping you could give me some advice to help me on my way. Any books, magazines, web sites, people, colleges, or any other general advice. Thank you for your time.
The most important thing for you to worry about at this point is to do well in your classes, especially in math and science. To get a good overview of what we do here at NASA in the area of high-energy astrophysics, check out our learning center:
Info. on "Quantum", a magazine put out by the National Science Teachers Association on physics and math is available at:
Finally, "Imagine", is put out by the Johns Hopkins University with info. for pre-college students. A recent issue focused on Physics and Astronomy, including some profiles of some of the scientists in our lab. The URL is:
I suspect you are already reading magazines like Discover and Scientific American to hear about recent developments.
Becoming a NASA Scientist
Hello. I would like to know what it is like to work for nasa; and does it take a real love for astronomy, to do what you do? What does it take to be able to work for NASA? How long would it take for a high school student to reach that point?
We're not the best group to compare NASA with other places to work. Because we're here, it must be an organization that particularly suits us! We do think that most people here feel a sense of pride in the NASA mission and that many other people would enjoy working at a NASA Center.
We hope that everyone here cares about and enjoys what they do, whether that is research (in the space, Earth and life sciences) or engineering, or computer programming, or any of the other jobs that must be done for the Agency to accomplish its goals. Work is mere drudgery when it is neither meaningful nor pleasant.
There are many different jobs within NASA. In addition to scientists, engineers and programmers, there are accountants, secretaries, librarians, cooks, security guards, etc. You name it - NASA probably needs it somewhere.
Scientists will typically need to have earned a Ph.D degree in a field relevant to NASA, so they are often in their mid-twenties when they arrive. Engineers and programmers might come straight out of college or later in their careers.
Our advice, if you are interested in working here one day, is to get as broad a preparation as you can. It you're interested in the more technical positions you should work hard on math, the sciences (especially physics) and using computers. Your objectives might change. Also, NASA might be very different in five or ten years - and may be smaller than today. If you've given yourself a good technical education though, you'll be ready for most opportunities.
How much of a social life do you have?
If you are wondering whether scientists are all nerds and have no social lives, fear not! Like any other profession, scientists certainly have a range of personalities and are not all alike. However, most scientists do have a love of irreverence and a sense of adventure, which not only makes them fun to party with but also means you meet people who have traveled all over the globe and usually have fascinating hobbies. In addition to taking in the latest concerts and movies when not at work, members of the "Ask an Astrophysicist" team have been known to go white-water rafting, make home-brew beer, sing in rock bands (and get paid for it!), perform on stage, and do some *serious* biking (mountain and touring)!
Also, another common (and untrue) assumption about scientists are that they are all men. About half the "Ask an Astrophysicist" team are women, and the group contains married and single people of all ages.
Whatever career you choose, we hope it provides you with the opportunity to be around as many fun people as being at NASA does for us.
The Men and Women of the
"Ask an Astrophysicist" Team
Becoming an Engineer
I am 13 years old and I have long been interested in space and astronomy. I like to construct all kinds of things. I have set a high goal for myself and I was hoping you would have some suggestions on what colleges to attend. I would like to be a robotics engineer for nasa and design space probes. Well, if you have any suggestions about what to do please let me know.
It is great that you are interested in becoming an engineer and working on robotics for space. Most of us here at Ask an Astrophysicist are physicists or astronomers, so we don't have experience with exactly the things you are interested in. However, we do work for NASA in one form or another, and many of the courses we took in college were the same as those taken by engineers, so we know something about the subject. I would separate the answer into the following parts:
(i) It is generally true that 'better' (i.e. more competitive) colleges provide better educations and job opportunities for their graduates. However, this is certainly not always true. State universities, for example, often provide as good educations as private universities. Some names of private universities which are known for good engineering programs are MIT and Cal Tech. Some of these will have their own laboratories which may be working with NASA on the kind of engineering applications you are interested in; you may be able to get work experience while you are still in school.
(ii) Once you are in college there are summer school programs which can give you an overview of the kind of work going on inside NASA. Our laboratory, Goddard Space Flight Center, operates one of these, and I am sure that there are others at other NASA centers. You can get information by writing to Ms. Maybelline Burrell, Code 100, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771.
(iii) Finally, I would caution against deciding on your career choice too early. There are many interesting things to do, and by keeping your mind somewhat open you may happen onto something wonderful and unexpected.
I hope this helps.
for the Ask an Astrophysicist team
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