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Imagine the Universe! Dictionary

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[A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z]

(Note - Greek letters are written out by name - alpha, beta etc.)


The process in which light or other electromagnetic radiation gives up its energy to an atom or molecule.

absorption line spectrum
A spectrum showing dark lines at some narrow color regions (wavelengths). The lines are formed by atoms absorbing light, which lifts their electrons to higher orbits.

Accumulation of dust and gas onto larger bodies such as stars, planets and moons.

accretion disk
A relatively flat sheet of gas and dust surrounding a newborn star, a black hole, or any massive object growing in size by attracting material.

active galactic nuclei (AGN)
A class of galaxies which spew massive amounts of energy from their centers, far more than ordinary galaxies. Many astronomers believe supermassive black holes may lie at the center of these galaxies and power their explosive energy output.

* Tell me about AGN!
* Tell me more about AGN!

A unit of length equal to 0.00000001 centimeters. This may also be written as 1 x 10-8 cm (see scientific notation).

angular momentum
A quantity obtained by multiplying the mass of an orbiting body by its velocity and the radius of its orbit. According to the conservation laws of physics, the angular momentum of any orbiting body must remain constant at all points in the orbit, i.e., it cannot be created or destroyed. If the orbit is elliptical the radius will vary. Since the mass is constant, the velocity changes. Thus planets in elliptical orbits travel faster at perihelion and more slowly at aphelion. A spinning body also possesses spin angular momentum.

The point of greatest separation between two stars which are in orbit around each other. See binary stars. Opposite of periastron.

The point in its orbit where a planet is farthest from the Sun. Opposite of perihelion.

The point in an orbit when the two objects are farthest apart. Special names are given to this orbital point for commonly used systems: see apastron, aphelion, and apogee.

The point in its orbit where an Earth satellite is farthest from the Earth. Opposite of perigee.

arc minute
An angular measurement equal to 1/60th of a degree.

arc second
An angular measurement equal to 1/60th of an arc minute or 1/3600th of a degree.

Ariel V
A UK X-ray mission, also known as UK-5

* Tell me more about Ariel V.

The Japanese Asuka spacecraft (formerly Astro-D), an X-ray mission

* Tell me more about ASCA.

Astrophysics Science Division, located at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The scientists, programmers and technicians working here study the astrophysics of objects which emit cosmic ray, x-ray and gamma-ray radiation.

All Sky Monitor. An instrument designed to observe large areas of the sky for interesting astronomical phenomena. An ASM measures the intensity of many sources across the sky and looks for new sources. Many high-energy satellites have carried ASM detectors, including the ASM on Vela 5B, Ariel V, and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer.

A X-ray/gamma-ray mission built jointly by the United States and Japan. Astro E was destroyed in February 2000, when a Japanese M-5 rocket failed to lift the instrument into orbit. A replacement mission, Astro-E2, was succesfully launched in July 2005, and subsequently renamed Suzaku.

* Tell me more about Astro-E.
* Tell me more about Astro-E2/Suzaku.

astronomical unit (AU)
149,597,870 km; the average distance from the Earth to the Sun.

The scientific study of matter in outer space, especially the positions, dimensions, distribution, motion, composition, energy, and evolution of celestial bodies and phenomena.

The part of astronomy that deals principally with the physics of the universe, including luminosity, density, temperature, and the chemical composition of stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium.

The gas that surrounds a planet or star. The Earth's atmosphere is made up of mostly nitrogen, while the Sun's atmosphere consists of mostly hydrogen.

The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility. AXAF was renamed Chandra X-ray Observatory, CXO, and launched in July 1999.

* Tell me more about AXAF.


Balmer lines (J. Balmer)
Emission or absorption lines in the spectrum of hydrogen that arise from transitions between the second (or first excited) state and higher energy states of the hydrogen atom. They were discovered by Swiss physicist J. J. Balmer.

Any of the subatomic particles which interact via the strong nuclear force. Most commonly, these are protons and neutrons. Their presence in the universe is determined through their gravitational and electromagnetic interactions.

BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) was an instrument aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory that detected and located gamma-ray bursts in the sky.

The Broad Band X-Ray Telescope, which was flown on the Astro-1 space shuttle flight (Dec. 1990).

* Tell me more about BBXRT.

Be star
A spectral type "B" star that shows emission lines in its spectrum. Be stars are also rapidly rotating and losing mass. The emission lines result from ultraviolet light from the star being reprocessed in the ejected material.

A major satellite program of the Italian Space Agency with partcipation from the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programs. BeppoSAX operated from 1996 to 2002, and covered more than three decades of energy (from 0.1 to 300 keV) with relatively large effective area, medium energy resolution and imaging capabilities from 0.1 - 10 keV. Among BeppoSAX's claims to fame is its first detection of an afterglow from a gamma-ray burst in 1997. BeppoSAX was named after Italian physicist Giuseppe Occhialini, whose nickname was Beppo.

* Tell me more about BeppoSAX.

Big Bang
A widely accepted model of the Universe that assumes that the observed expansion of the Universe originated about 13.7 billion years ago, when the Universe was very hot and very dense. It successfully explains the cosmic microwave background and the ratio of hydrogen, helium, and other light elements, as well as the expansion of the Universe.

binary stars
Binary stars are two stars that orbit around a common center of mass. An X-ray binary is a special case where one of the stars is a collapsed object such as a white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole, and the separation between the stars is small enough so that matter is transferred from the normal star to the compact star star, producing X-rays in the process.

* Tell me about X-ray binary stars.
* Tell me more about X-ray binary stars.

black dwarf
A non-radiating ball of gas resulting from a white dwarf that has radiated all its energy.

black hole
An object whose gravity is so strong that not even light can escape from it.

* Tell me about X-rays from black holes.
* Tell me more about black holes.

black-hole dynamic laws; laws of black-hole dynamics

  1. First law of black hole dynamics:
    For interactions between black holes and normal matter, the conservation laws of mass-energy, electric charge, linear momentum, and angular momentum, hold. This is analogous to the first law of thermodynamics.
  2. Second law of black hole dynamics:
    With black-hole interactions, or interactions between black holes and normal matter, the sum of the surface areas of all black holes involved can never decrease. This is analogous to the second law of thermodynamics, with the surface areas of the black holes being a measure of the entropy of the system.

blackbody radiation
Blackbody radiation is produced by an object which is a perfect absorber of heat. Perfect absorbers must also be perfect radiators. For a blackbody at a temperature T, the intensity of radiation emitted I at a particular energy E is given by Plank's law:

I(E,T) = 2 E3[h2c2(eE/kT - 1)]-1

where h is Planck's constant, k is Boltzmann's constant, and c is the the speed of light.

blackbody temperature
The temperature of an object if it is re-radiating all the thermal energy that has been added to it; if an object is not a blackbody radiator, it will not re-radiate all the excess heat and the leftover will go toward increasing its temperature.

An apparent shift toward shorter wavelengths of spectral lines in the radiation emitted by an object caused by motion between the object and the observer which decreases the distance between them. See also Doppler effect.

bolometric luminosity
The total energy radiated by an object at all wavelengths, usually given in joules per second (identical to watts).

Boltzmann constant; k (L. Boltzmann)
A constant which describes the relationship between temperature and kinetic energy for molecules in an ideal gas. It is equal to 1.380622 x 10-23 J/K (see scientific notation).

Brahe, Tycho (1546 - 1601)
(a.k.a Tyge Ottesen) Danish astronomer whose accurate astronomical observations of Mars in the last quarter of the 16th century formed the basis for Johannes Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Brahe lost his nose in a duel in 1566 with Manderup Parsberg (a fellow student and nobleman) at Rostock over who was the better mathematician. He died in 1601, not of a burst bladder as legend suggests, but from high levels of mercury in his blood (which he may have taken as medication after falling ill from the infamous meal).

* Show me a picture of Tycho Brahe!

"Braking radiation", the main way very fast charged particles lose energy when traveling through matter. Radiation is emitted when charged particles are accelerated. In this case, the acceleration is caused by the electromagnetic fields of the atomic nuclei of the medium.


A process for translating the signals produced by a measuring instrument (such as a telescope) into something that is scientifically useful. This procedure removes most of the errors caused by environmental and instrumental instabilities.

An instrument that measures the energy of a particle or photon through the amount of heat the particle or photon deposits in a material.

cataclysmic variable (CV)
Binary star systems with one white dwarf star and one normal star, in close orbit about each other. Material from the normal star falls onto the white dwarf, creating a burst of X-rays.

* Tell me more about Cataclysmic Variables.

Cepheid Variable
A type of variable star which exhibits a regular pattern of changing brightness as a function of time. The period of the pulsation pattern is directly related to the star's intrinsic brightness. Thus, Cepheid variables are a powerful tool for determining distances in modern astronomy.

* Tell me more about Cepheid Variables.

The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

* Tell me more about CGRO.

Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO)
One of NASA's Great Observatories in Earth orbit, launched in July 1999, and named after S. Chandrasekhar. It was previously named the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF).

Chandrasekhar, S. (1910 - 1995)
Indian astrophysicist reknowned for creating theoretical models of white dwarf stars, among other achievements. His equations explained the underlying physics behind the creation of white dwarfs, neutron stars and other compact objects.

Chandrasekhar limit
A limit which mandates that no white dwarf (a collapsed, degenerate star) can be more massive than about 1.4 solar masses. Any degenerate object more massive must inevitably collapse into a neutron star.

cluster of galaxies
A system of galaxies containing from a few to a few thousand member galaxies which are all gravitationally bound to each other.

collecting area
The amount of area a telescope has that is capable of collecting electromagnetic radiation. Collecting area is important for a telescope's sensitivity: the more radiation it can collect (that is, the larger its collecting area), the more likely it is to detect dim objects.

Compton effect (A.H. Compton; 1923)
An effect that demonstrates that photons (the quantum of electromagnetic radiation) have momentum. A photon fired at a stationary particle, such as an electron, will impart momentum to the electron and, since its energy has been decreased, will experience a corresponding decrease in frequency.

* Tell me how gamma-ray astronomers use the Compton effect.

NASA ultraviolet/X-ray mission, also known as OAO-3.

* Tell me more about the Copernicus mission.

Copernicus, Nicolaus (1473 - 1543)
Polish astronomer who advanced the theory that the Earth and other planets revolve around the Sun (the "heliocentric" theory). This was highly controversial at the time, since the prevailing Ptolemaic model held that the Earth was the center of the universe, and all objects, including the sun, circle it. The Ptolemaic model had been widely accepted in Europe for 1000 years when Copernicus proposed his model. (It should be noted, however, that the heliocentric idea was first put forth by Aristarcus of Samos in the 3rd century B.C., a fact known to Copernicus but long ignored by others prior to him.).

* Show me a picture of Nicholas Copernicus!

corona (plural: coronae)
The uppermost level of a star's atmosphere. In the sun, the corona is characterized by low densities and high temperatures (> 1,000,000 degrees K).

* Tell me about X-rays from the Sun's corona.
* Tell me about X-rays from other stellar coronae.

A satellite launched in August 1975 to study extraterrestrial sources of gamma-ray emission.

* Tell me more about COS-B.

cosmic background radiation; primal glow
The background of radiation mostly in the frequency range 3 x 108 to 3 x 1011 Hz (see scientific notation) discovered in space in 1965. It is believed to be the cosmologically redshifted radiation released by the Big Bang itself.

cosmic rays
Atomic nuclei (mostly protons) and electrons that are observed to strike the Earth's atmosphere with exceedingly high energies.

cosmological constant; Lambda
A constant term (labeled Lambda) which Einstein added to his general theory of relativity in the mistaken belief that the Universe was neither expanding nor contracting. The cosmological constant was found to be unnecessary once observations indicated the Universe was expanding. Had Einstein believed what his equations were telling him, he could have claimed the expansion of the Universe as perhaps the greatest and most convincing prediction of general relativity; he called this the "greatest blunder of my life".

cosmological distance
A distance far beyond the boundaries of our Galaxy. When viewing objects at cosmological distances, the curved nature of spacetime could become apparent. Possible cosmological effects include time dilation and redshift.

cosmological redshift
An effect where light emitted from a distant source appears redshifted because of the expansion of spacetime itself. Compare Doppler effect.

The astrophysical study of the history, structure, and dynamics of the universe.

The Chandra X-ray Observatory. CXO was launched by the Space Shuttle in July 1999, and named for S. Chandrasekhar.

* Tell me more about CXO.


dark matter
Name given to the amount of mass whose existence is deduced from the analysis of galaxy rotation curves but which until now, has escaped all detections. There are many theories on what dark matter could be. Not one, at the moment is convincing enough and the question is still a mystery.

de Broglie wavelength (L. de Broglie; 1924)
The quantum mechanical "wavelength" associated with a particle, named after the scientist who discovered it. In quantum mechanics, all particles also have wave characteristics, where the wavelength of a particle is inversely proportional to its momentum and the constant of proportionality is the Planck constant.

A coordinate which, along with Right Ascension, may be used to locate any position in the sky. Declination is analogous to latitude for locating positions on the Earth, and ranges from +90 degrees to -90 degrees.

An image processing technique that removes features in an image that are caused by the telescope itself rather than from actual light coming from the sky. For example, the optical analog would be to remove the spikes and halos which often appear on images of bright stars because of light scattered by the telescope's internal supports.

The ratio between the mass of an object and its volume. In the metric system, density is measured in grams per cubic centimeter (or kilograms per liter); the density of water is 1.0 gm/cm3; iron is 7.9 gm/cm3; lead is 11.3 gm/cm3.

A container (akin to a thermos bottle) that keeps cold material cold. In astronomy, these are often used for liquid nitrogen (at 77K), but can also be used for solid neon (17K) or liquid helium (4.2K). Some astronomical detectors work better at cold temperatures.

(a) A flattened, circular region of gas, dust, and/or stars. It may refer to material surrounding a newly-formed star; material accreting onto a black hole or neutron star; or the large region of a spiral galaxy containing the spiral arms. (b) The apparent circular shape of the Sun, a planet, or the moon when seen in the sky or through a telescope.

Doppler effect (C.J. Doppler)
The apparent change in wavelength of sound or light caused by the motion of the source, observer or both. Waves emitted by a moving object as received by an observer will be blueshifted (compressed) if approaching, redshifted (elongated) if receding. It occurs both in sound and light. How much the frequency changes depends on how fast the object is moving toward or away from the receiver. Compare cosmological redshift.

Not the dust one finds around the house (which is typically fine bits of fabric, dirt, and dead skin cells). Rather, irregularly shaped grains of carbon and/or silicates measuring a fraction of a micron across which are found between the stars. Dust is most evident by its absorption, causing large dark patches in regions of our Milky Way Galaxy and dark bands across other galaxies.

dust tail
A stream of dust particles emitted from the nucleus of a comet. It is the most visible part of a comet.

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